In this research note we examine the make-up of the Turkish-backed “Free Syrian Army”, which Turkish government-linked sources have announced will participate in a threatened invasion of North-Eastern Syria following their invasion of Afrin one year ago.

You can read the report above and find a link to view and download the full factsheet here, free to use and share with credit to Rojava Information Center.

Key findings include:

• Islamist factions backed by Turkey in their assault on Rojava previously guilty of torture and shelling of civilian areas amounting to “war crimes”, per UN and Amnesty reports
• Fresh assault on Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS) follows killing of hundreds and displacing of hundreds of thousands of civilians during Turkish-backed militias in Afrin
• Civilians in Rojava face bombing from Turkish aircraft and assault from militias linked to Al-Nusra Front (Al-Qaeda in Syria) and accused of rape, torture, execution
• Jaysh-al-Islam (Army of Islam) fighters transported from Ghouta will participate in invasion: notorious militia paraded caged captives, tortured and executed civilians